Monthly Archives: September 2015

Revolutionary Women As Second Class Citizens: Mercy Otis Warren

Revolutionary Women As Second Class Citizens: Mercy Otis Warren
Mercy Otis Warren

Mercy Otis Warren

Mercy Otis Warren was born in 1728 in Barnstable, Massachusetts into a wealthy family. She was home-schooled especially in the domestic arts but listened in on her brothers’ academic lessons. She absorbed a lot because her brother, James, encouraged her to pursue her interest in history and writing..

In 1764, she married James Warren, a merchant, farmer and a member of the Massachusetts State Legislature. Through her husband she came to know the leaders of the American Revolution and he, too, encouraged her to pursue her literary interests.

Mercy frequently wrote letters to Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson about issues involving the colonies and the Warren’s home eventually became a hub for  revolutionaries and intellectuals. Boston revolutionaries formed the Committees of Correspondence after a series of protest meetings were held in Mercy’s parlor. She also corresponded with her friend, Abigail Adams, whose husband became the second President of the United Sates. Later their friendship cooled when Mercy was critical of John Adams in her three-volume history of the United States.

She used the pseudonym Fidelia for the poems and dramas she wrote many of which were anti-British. In Model Celebration, mermaids and other sea creatures enjoy sipping British rea during the Boston Tea Party of 1773. In Blockheads, Mercy made fun of the British King George. Other plays included the Adulateur (1772), The Defeat and The Group (1775). In 1790, she published yet another volume of poems and plays.

The British did not know who wrote these works otherwise they would have arrested and hanged Mercy for treason. Warren was also noted for the three-volume History of the Rise, Progress and Termination of the American Revolution published in 1805, the first narrative of the conflict between America and Britain.

In addition to her writing pursuits and political interests, Mercy ran a farm in her husband’s absence and raised five sons.

Bibliography:

Diamant, Lincoln, editor. Revolutionary Women in the War for American Independence, A One Volume Revised Edition of Elizabeth Ellet’s 1848 Landmark Series. Westport Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 1998.

Greenberg, Judith E. and McKeever, Helen Cary. Journal of a Revolutionary War Woman. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

Micklos, John. The Brave Women and Children of the American Revolution. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, Inc, 2009

Freeman, Land M., North, Louise V and Wedge, Janet M. In the Words of Women: the Revolutionary War and the Birth of the Nation, 1765-1799. Landam, Md: Lexington Books, 2011.

Redmond, Shirley Raye. Patriots in Petticoats, Heroines of the American Revolution.

www.britannica.com/biography/Mercy-Otis-Warren

POMANDER BALLS

MATERIALS:

Ripe orange, or lemon or lime

Jar o whole cloves

Toothpick

Dish of powdered cinnamon (optional)

Netting

Ribbon

String

Scissors

 

PROJECT:

  1. With a toothpick, poke holes in the skin of the fruit keeping them close together.
    (Sometimes this step isn’t necessary. Try it without the toothpick first.)
  2. Push a clove into each hole covering the entire fruit with cloves. Place the cloves as tightly or as far apart as you choose but cover the entire fruit with cloves.
  3. Optional: Roll the fruit in the cinnamon. Cover with cloves. Place it in a pretty dish and place the dish in a cool dark place for two to three weeks so that the fruit dries out.
  4. Optional: Place the fruit in a square of netting. Gather up the ends of the netting and tie a ribbon around it. Leave enough extra ribbon to make a loop. Or, skip the netting and simply tie ribbon around the pomander ball.
  5. Hang the pomander ball or place it on a pretty dish. It will scent the entire room.

 

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Revolutionary Women As Second Class Citizens: Phillis Wheatley

Revolutionary Women As Second Class Citizens: Phillis Wheatley
Phillis Wheatley

Phillis Wheatley

Born and kidnapped in Senegal, Phillis Wheatley arrived in Boston, Massachusetts in 1761.John and Susanna Wheatley, a Quaker couple, bought her to work as a domestic and named her Phillis. Instead, they raised Phillis like their own daughter. Phillis didn’t know English when she came into their household but Susanna tutored her. Phillis mastered the English language and was able to read the Bible at a young age, compelling the Wheatleys to hire teachers. Her tutors encouraged her to continue her English studies and study theology and the Greek and Latin classics.

When she was eleven, she began to correspond with a Mohegan Indian, the Reverend Samson Occum, agreeing with his criticism of slave-holding Christian ministers and other related issues.

Phillis was the first African-American to publish a book of poems, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral in 1767. Her writing was so powerful that Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts, James Bowdoin, John Hancock, and the Reverend Samuel Cooper questioned the poems were really written by her.

Phillis’ poems condemned slavery and celebrated freedom and liberty. She wrote a poem entitled To His Excellency General Washington in which she praised him and urged to carry on the fight for America’s freedom. The poem impressed George Washington and he invited Phillis to have tea with him at his army camp.

After the publication of her book of poems, Thomas Wheatley took her on a trip to England where the public treated her like a literary celebrity. In France, Voltaire praised her “very good English verse.”

In 1773, John and Susanna Wheatley gave Phillis her freedom.  After the Wheatleys died, Phillis  married John Peters in 1778, a free black Bostonian. They had three children two of whom died in childbirth. Peters later abandoned her. Impoverished, she and her third child died of complications following childbirth. her final manuscript has never been found.

Bibliography:

Diamant, Lincoln, editor. Revolutionary Women in the War for American Independence, A One Volume Revised Edition of Elizabeth Ellet’s 1848 Landmark Series. Westport Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 1998.

Greenberg, Judith E. and McKeever, Helen Cary. Journal of a Revolutionary War Woman. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

Micklos, John. The Brave Women and Children of the American Revolution. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, Inc, 2009

Freeman, Land M., North, Louise V and Wedge, Janet M. In the Words of Women: the Revolutionary War and the Birth of the Nation, 1765-1799. Landam, Md: Lexington Books, 2011.

Redmond, Shirley Raye. Patriots in Petticoats, Heroines of the American Revolution.

New York: Random House, 2004

www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part2/2p12.html

www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part2/2h19.html

 

Do the craft below!

Red, White and Blue Banner

Fourth of July Banner

Fourth of July Banner

 

Ages: 5 – 12 years                            Time: ½ hour

MATERIALS:

White felt 36” x 36”                          Red Fun Foam

Blue Fun Foam                                  white Fun Foam

sharp tool like an awl                        ¼” red, white and blue ribbon

Measure and cut white felt to 14” x 20”. Place felt horizontally. Fold a 1” seam at the top of the felt and iron. Fold a second 1” seam and iron again. Glue the second seam with tacky glue. You will pass the dowel rod through this loop. This piece of felt should now measure 14” x 16”.

Trace the large star pattern and cut one large star out of the white Fun Foam. Cut 13 smaller stars out of the white Fun Foam using the smaller star pattern.

Trace and cut a large circle out of the blue Fun Foam. Glue the large star in the center. Arrange the smaller stars around the circle. Make sure that they all face the same way. Lay aside. Measure and cut 7 stripes ¾” x 16” out of the red Fun Foam.

Arrange the stripes on the banner so that there is a ¾” stripe of white felt showing between them. (Refer to the diagram provided.) Glue the stripes down and trim if necessary.

Glue the blue circle with the stars in the center of the red and white stripes.

At the bottom of the banner, poke holes every 1” with a sharp tool like an awl.  (Small children should let adults do this for them.) Insert the ribbon in the holes, alternating the colors. Pull the ribbon through and tie a knot in the back.

Trim the dowel rod to 18 x 20”. Cut a piece of string to a length suitable for hanging. Tie the string to each end of the dowel rod.

Remember Phillis Wheatley and her love of liberty!

 

 

 

 

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England 1976 – Part V – Leigh-on-Sea

England 1976 – Part V – Leigh-on-Sea

After a week or so in London, I left my friends and went to Leigh-on-Sea to see my relatives (some of whom lived in nearby Southend-On-Sea, too). Leigh was (and probably still is) the real England from my point of view . The surrounding countryside was rather dreary-looking back then although I got excited when I saw a ruin.

There was a board walk (with shops) in the town because the Thames River flows as far as Leigh. We never spent a day at the beach – none of our days spent there were sunny enough in spite of the drought. The boats along the river lent an air of quaintness to the area.

The house my relatives bought was probably typical for the times and of the British working class. The room where you bathed and the room where you went to the toilet were two different rooms. (Living now in a house with one all-inclusive bathroom, that makes more sense because two people can do what they have to do at the same time as long as the first person has to bathe and the second person goes to the bathroom.) I can’t remember if there was a bidet but there could have been because bidets are popular in Europe.

My cousin and I ate fish and chips at a small shop that served them on a newspaper (saves on washing dishes) although I usually ate my aunt’s home-cooking which was delicious and reminded me of my life in the village. My cousin’s boyfriend drove us to a night spot one night in his car but otherwise we took the bus or walked wherever we went. It didn’t take long to walk to a shop or the boardwalk. The locals who worked in London traveled by commuter train or by bus (one was faster and the other was cheaper).

I also met my two other aunts, uncle and their children, relatives I had never met before. My traveling companions came to visit us for a few days, too. When it was time, we left from there for Gatwick Airport (Our plane couldn’t depart as scheduled so we stopped briefly at Brighton; our the airline company had to take us somewhere.).

At one point, it finally rained. Actually, it was a thunderstorm as I recall.

Copy and paste the links below into your browser:

www.leigh-on-sea.com

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leigh-on-Sea

 

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England 1976 Part IV

England 1976 Part IV

My favorite places were the streets of London – the streets of any city are my favorite places –  photographing the people and buildings that didn’t necessarily have any historical significance like the gypsy selling flowers at Portobello Road or eating lunch at Woolworth’s.

One day, Portobello Road will deserve a blog all its own from me. The crowds – filled with the kind of people you would find on Broadway and Times Square –  the smells, the sounds, the colors, and the over abundance of stuff for sale  would set me off writing for days and days.

We went to Marks and Spencer and I bought a dress that I thought would be considered “mod” since it was from England. I bought a shirtwaist-type dress was in black and tan with stripes and short sleeves. Styles were changing by the middle 1970s. Women’s clothes were more tailored especially dresses and this dress had tailoring down to its buttons

I also bought Mary Quant make-up in cute pots. The label on the pot of blush called it “cheeky.”  How “mod” was that?

http://www.fashion-era.com/2970s.htm

The City of Westminster is home to Baker Street among other famous addresses and took its name from the builder William Baker who laid the street out in the 1700s. The detective Sherlock Holmes lived at the fictional address 221 B Baker Street.

http://www.londontown.com/LondonStreets/baker_street

Portobello Road is the world’s largest antiques market with over 1000 dealers. www.portobelloroad.co.uk

Located on Brompton Road in Knightsbridge,Harrods is the biggest department store in Europe.

www.harrods.com

Piccadilly Circus is a round open public space in London’s West End in the City of Westminster. Piccadilly Circus connect  Regent Street with Piccadilly Street. Piccadilly Circus is close to entertainment areas in the West End and links to the theatres on Shaftesbury Avenue. www.piccadillycircus.com

Madame Tussaud’s Wax Museum: Founded by Marie Tussaud, a wax sculptor, the wax museum houses the likenesses of many famous people.  www.madametussauds.com

No. 10 Downing Street houses the headquarters of the Executive Arm of the British government and is the official residence of the Prime Minister and the office of the First Lord of the Treasury. The building is over 300 years old and has about 100 rooms. No. 10 is  close to St. James Park, the Palace of Westminster and Buckingham Palace. www.gov.uk//history/10-downing-street

The Tower of London and “London Bridge” are two of the most famous symbols of London. The Tower of London houses the ghosts of past prisoners  – Anne Boleyn, Guy Fawkes and Sir Walter Raleigh among others – and the crown jewels. The jewels, of course, were beautiful and included the Imperial State Crown which the Queen uses at the State Opening of Parliament and St. Edward’s Crown which the King or Queen wears during the coronation (when there is one).

www.hrp.org.uk/CrownJewels/abriefhistory

www.history.com/news/history-lists/6-famous-prisoners-of-the-tower-of-london

What every tourist thinks of as the London Bridge is really the Tower Bridge. This is the bridge that tourists photograph and mistakenly call the London Bridge. Built in 1894 to look like a medieval bridge the Tower Bridge is on the way to the Tower of London.

The London Bridge was built in 1973 and spans the Thames River like the Tower Bridge.

www.freetoursby foot.com/London-bridge-tower-bridge

When I took my photos of London Tower and Tower Bridge, I had no way of know that the film would be over-exposed when I developed the film back home. I was upset when I first saw them but now I’ m glad they are the way they are. When I look at them now, I think how the photos set a mood for the places I photographed.

 

 

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